2013美国STEMI指南

STEMI诊疗指南

简介

方法论和证据回顾

      The recommendations listed in this document are, wheneverpossible, evidence based. The current document constitutes a full revision and includes an extensive evidence review which was conducted through November 2010, with additional selected references added through August 2012. Searches were limited to studies conducted in human subjects and reviews and other evidence pertaining to human subjects; all were published in English. Key search words included but were not limited to: acute coronary syndromes, percutaneouscoronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, myocardial infarction, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, coronary stent, revascularization, anticoagulant therapy, antiplatelet therapy, antithrombotic therapy, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy, pharmacotherapy, proton-pump inhibitor, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, cardiogenic shock, fibrinolytic therapy, thrombolytic therapy, nitrates, mechanical complications, arrhythmia, angina, chronic stable angina, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, mortality, morbidity, elderly, ethics, and contrast nephropathy. Additional searches cross-referenced these topics with the following subtopics: percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, cardiac rehabilitation, and secondary prevention. Additionally, the committee reviewed documents related to the subject matter previously published by the ACCF and AHA. References selected and published in this document are representative and not all inclusive.
      The focus of this guideline is the management of patients with STEMI. Updates to the 2004 STEMI guideline were published in 2007 and 2009 (5–7). Particular emphasis is placed on advances in reperfusion therapy, organization of regional systems of care, transfer algorithms, evidence-based antithrombotic and medical therapies, and secondary prevention strategies to optimize patient-centered care. By design, the document is narrower in scope than the 2004 STEMI Guideline, in an attempt to provide a more focused tool for practitioners. References related to management guidelines are provided whenever appropriate, including those pertaining to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), heart failure (HF), cardiac devices, and secondary prevention.

编写委员会的组织

      The writing committee was composed of experts representing cardiovascular medicine, interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, HF, cardiac surgery, emergency medicine, internal medicine, cardiac rehabilitation, nursing, and pharmacy. The American College of Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, and Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions assigned official representatives.

文件回顾和批准

      This document was reviewed by 2 outside reviewers each nominated by the ACCF and the AHA, as well as 2 reviewers each from the American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and 22 individual content reviewers (including members from the ACCF Interventional Scientific Council and ACCF Surgeons’ Scientific Council). All reviewer RWI information was distributed to the writing committee and is published in this document (Appendix 2).
      This document was approved for publication by the governing bodies of the ACCF and the AHA and was endorsed by the American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

心肌梗死的发生:推荐规范

STEMI护理、再灌注治疗的区域系统以及治疗时间目标

Figure 1. Reperfusion therapy for patients with STEMI. The bold arrows and boxes are the preferred strategies. Performance of PCI is dictated by an anatomically appropriate culprit stenosis.
*Patients with cardiogenic shock or severe heart failure initially seen at a non–PCI-capable hospital should be transferred for cardiac catheterization and revascularization as soon as possible, irrespective of time delay from MI onset (Class I, LOE: B). †Angiography and revascularization should not be performed within the first 2 to 3 hours after administration of fibrinolytic therapy. CABG indicates coronary artery bypass graft; DIDO, door-in–door-out; FMC, first medical contact; LOE, Level of Evidence; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; and STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
CLASS I
1. All communities should create and maintain a regional system of STEMI care that includes assessment and continuous quality improvement of emergency medical services and hospitalbased activities. Performance can be facilitated by participating in programs such as Mission: Lifeline and the Door-to-Balloon Alliance (8–11). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Performance of a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) by emergency medical services personnel at the site of first medical contact (FMC) is recommended in patients with symptoms consistent with STEMI (11–15). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Reperfusion therapy should be administered to all eligible patients with STEMI with symptom onset within the prior 12 hours (16,17). (Level of Evidence: A)
4. Primary PCI is the recommended method of reperfusion when it can be performed in a timely fashion by experienced operators (17–19). (Level of Evidence: A)
5. Emergency medical services transport directly to a PCIcapable hospital for primary PCI is the recommended triage strategy for patients with STEMI, with an ideal FMC-to-device time system goal of 90 minutes or less* (11,14,15). (Level of Evidence: B)
6. Immediate transfer to a PCI-capable hospital for primary PCI is the recommended triage strategy for patients with STEMI who initially arrive at or are transported to a non–PCI-capable hospital, with an FMC-to-device time system goal of 120 minutes or less* (18–21). (Level of Evidence: B)
7. In the absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be administered to patients with STEMI at non–PCI-capable hospitals when the anticipated FMC-to-device time at a PCIcapable hospital exceeds 120 minutes because of unavoidable delays (16,22,23). (Level of Evidence: B)
8. When fibrinolytic therapy is indicated or chosen as the primary reperfusion strategy, it should be administered within 30 minutes of hospital arrival* (24–28). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS Iia
1. Reperfusion therapy is reasonable for patients with STEMI and symptom onset within the prior 12 to 24 hours who have clinical and/or ECG evidence of ongoing ischemia. Primary PCI is the preferred strategy in this population (16,29,30). (Level of Evidence: B)

STEMI及院外心脏骤停患者的评估和管理

CLASS I
1. Therapeutic hypothermia should be started as soon as possible in comatose patients with STEMI and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, including patients who undergo primary PCI (31–33). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Immediate angiography and PCI when indicated should be performed in resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients whose initial ECG shows STEMI (34–49). (Level of Evidence: B)

可提供PCI医院的再灌注治疗:推荐规范

STEMI的PCI治疗

CLASS I
1. Primary PCI should be performed in patients with STEMI and ischemic symptoms of less than 12 hours’ duration (17,50,51). (Level of Evidence: A)
2. Primary PCI should be performed in patients with STEMI and ischemic symptoms of less than 12 hours’ duration who have contraindications to fibrinolytic therapy, irrespective of the time delay from FMC (52,53). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Primary PCI should be performed in patients with STEMI and cardiogenic shock or acute severe HF, irrespective of time delay from myocardial infarction (MI) onset (Section 8.1)(54–57). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. Primary PCI is reasonable in patients with STEMI if there is clinical and/or ECG evidence of ongoing ischemia between 12 and 24 hours after symptom onset (29,30). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS III: HARM
1. PCI should not be performed in a noninfarct artery at the time of primary PCI in patients with STEMI who are hemodynamically stable (58–60). (Level of Evidence: B)

溶栓

CLASS IIa
1. Manual aspiration thrombectomy is reasonable for patients undergoing primary PCI (61–64). (Level of Evidence: B)

对STEMI患者应用支架

CLASS I
1. Placement of a stent (bare-metal stent or drug-eluting stent) is useful in primary PCI for patients with STEMI (65,66). (Level of Evidence: A)
2. Bare-metal stents† should be used in patients with high bleeding risk, inability to comply with 1 year of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), or anticipated invasive or surgical procedures in the next year. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Drug-eluting stents should not be used in primary PCI for patients with STEMI who are unable to tolerate or comply with a prolonged course of DAPT because of the increased risk of stent thrombosis with premature discontinuation of one or both agents (67–73). (Level of Evidence: B)

支持STEMI患者PCI治疗的抗血小板治疗

CLASS I
1. Aspirin 162 to 325 mg should be given before primary PCI (74–76). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. After PCI, aspirin should be continued indefinitely (77,78,80). (Level of Evidence: A)
3. A loading dose of a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor should be given as early as possible or at time of primary PCI to patients with STEMI. Options include
a. Clopidogrel 600 mg (76,81,82) (Level of Evidence: B); or
b. Prasugrel 60 mg (83) (Level of Evidence: B); or
c. Ticagrelor 180 mg (84). (Level of Evidence: B)
4. P2Y12 inhibitor therapy should be given for 1 year to patients with STEMI who receive a stent (bare-metal or drug-eluting) during primary PCI using the following maintenance doses:
a. Clopidogrel 75 mg daily (83,85) (Level of Evidence: B); or
b. Prasugrel 10 mg daily (85) (Level of Evidence: B); or
c. Ticagrelor 90 mg twice a day (84).‡ (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. It is reasonable to use 81 mg of aspirin per day in preference to higher maintenance doses after primary PCI (76,77,86,87). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. It is reasonable to start treatment with an intravenous glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist such as abciximab (88 –90) (Level of Evidence: A), high-bolus-dose tirofiban (91,92) (Level of Evidence: B), or double-bolus eptifibatide (93) (Level of Evidence: B) at the time of primary PCI (with or without stenting or clopidogrel pretreatment) in selected patients with STEMI who are receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH).
CLASS IIb
1. It may be reasonable to administer intravenous GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist in the precatheterization laboratory setting (e.g., ambulance, emergency department) to patients with STEMI for whom primary PCI is intended (91,94–101). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. It may be reasonable to administer intracoronary abciximab to patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI (64,102–108). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Continuation of a P2Y12 inhibitor beyond 1 year may be considered in patients undergoing drug-eluting stent placement. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Prasugrel should not be administered to patients with a history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (83). (Level of Evidence: B)

支持PCI治疗的抗凝治疗

CLASS I
1. For patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, the following supportive anticoagulant regimens are recommended:
a. UFH, with additional boluses administered as needed to maintain therapeutic activated clotting time levels, taking into account whether a GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist has been administered (Level of Evidence: C); or
b. Bivalirudin with or without prior treatment with UFH (109).(Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. In patients with STEMI undergoing PCI who are at high risk of bleeding, it is reasonable to use bivalirudin monotherapy in preference to the combination of UFH and a GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (109). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Fondaparinux should not be used as the sole anticoagulant to support primary PCI because of the risk of catheter thrombosis (110). (Level of Evidence: B)

不可提供PCI医院的再灌注治疗:推荐规范

首次医学接触120分钟内预期PCI将延迟时的纤维蛋白溶解治疗

CLASS I
1. In the absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be given to patients with STEMI and onset of ischemic symptoms within the previous 12 hours when it is anticipated that primary PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of FMC (16,111–116). (Level of Evidence: A)
CLASS IIa
1. In the absence of contraindications and when PCI is not available, fibrinolytic therapy is reasonable for patients with STEMI if there is clinical and/or electrocardiographic evidence of ongoing ischemia within 12 to 24 hours of symptom onset and a large area of myocardium at risk or hemodynamic instability. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Fibrinolytic therapy should not be administered to patients with ST depression except when a true posterior (inferobasal) MI is suspected or when associated with ST elevation in lead aVR(16,117–120). (Level of Evidence: B)

辅助抗血栓治疗

辅助抗血小板治疗

CLASS I
1. Aspirin (162- to 325-mg loading dose) and clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose for patients <75 years of age, 75-mg dose for patients >75 years of age) should be administered to patients with STEMI who receive fibrinolytic therapy (113,121,122). (Level of Evidence: A)
2. Aspirin should be continued indefinitely (113,121,122) (Level of Evidence: A) and clopidogrel (75 mg daily) should be continued for at least 14 days (121,122) (Level of Evidence: A) and up to 1 year (Level of Evidence: C) in patients with STEMI who receive fibrinolytic therapy.
CLASS IIa
1. It is reasonable to use aspirin 81 mg per day in preference to higher maintenance doses after fibrinolytic therapy (77,80,86,87). (Level of Evidence: B)

辅助抗凝治疗

CLASS I
1. Patients with STEMI undergoing reperfusion with fibrinolytic therapy should receive anticoagulant therapy for a minimum of 48 hours, and preferably for the duration of the index hospitalization, up to 8 days or until revascularization if performed (123,124). (Level of Evidence: A) Recommended regimens include
a. UFH administered as a weight-adjusted intravenous bolus and infusion to obtain an activated partial thromboplastin time of 1.5 to 2.0 times control, for 48 hours or until revascularization (Level of Evidence: C);
b. Enoxaparin administered according to age, weight, and creatinine clearance, given as an intravenous bolus, followed in 15 minutes by subcutaneous injection for the duration of the index hospitalization, up to 8 days or until revascularization (124–127) (Level of Evidence: A); or
c. Fondaparinux administered with initial intravenous dose, followed in 24 hours by daily subcutaneous injections if the estimated creatinine clearance is greater than 30 mL/min, for the duration of the index hospitalization, up to 8 days or until revascularization (110). (Level of Evidence: B)

在纤维蛋白溶解治疗后转运至可提供PCI的医院

在纤维蛋白溶解治疗后将STEMI患者转运至可提供PCI的医院行冠脉造影术

CLASS I
1. Immediate transfer to a PCI-capable hospital for coronary angiography is recommended for suitable patients with STEMI who develop cardiogenic shock or acute severe HF, irrespective of the time delay from MI onset (128). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. Urgent transfer to a PCI-capable hospital for coronary angiography is reasonable for patients with STEMI who demonstrate evidence of failed reperfusion or reocclusion after fibrinolytic therapy (129–132). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Transfer to a PCI-capable hospital for coronary angiography is reasonable for patients with STEMI who have received fibrinolytic therapy even when hemodynamically stable§ and with clinical evidence of successful reperfusion. Angiography can be performed as soon as logistically feasible at the receiving hospital, and ideally within 24 hours, but should not be performed within the first 2 to 3 hours after administration of fibrinolytic therapy (133–138). (Level of Evidence: B)

延迟的侵入性治疗:推荐规范

初始接受纤维蛋白溶解治疗或未接受再灌注病人的冠状动脉造影术

CLASS I
1. Cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography with intent to perform revascularization should be performed after STEMI in patients with any of the following:
a. Cardiogenic shock or acute severe HF that develops after initial presentation (57,128,139,140) (Level of Evidence: B);
b. Intermediate- or high-risk findings on predischarge noninvasive ischemia testing (141,142) (Level of Evidence:B); or
c. Myocardial ischemia that is spontaneous or provoked by minimal exertion during hospitalization. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. Coronary angiography with intent to perform revascularization is reasonable for patients with evidence of failed reperfusion or reocclusion after fibrinolytic therapy. Angiography can be performed as soon as logistically feasible (129–132). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Coronary angiography is reasonable before hospital discharge in stable§ patients with STEMI after successful fibrinolytic therapy. Angiography can be performed as soon as logistically feasible,and ideally within 24 hours, but should not be performed within the first 2 to 3 hours after administration of fibrinolytic therapy (133–138,143). (Level of Evidence: B)

初始接受纤维蛋白溶解治疗或未接受再灌注患者的梗死动脉PCI治疗

CLASS I
1. PCI of an anatomically significant stenosis in the infarct artery should be performed in patients with suitable anatomy and any of the following:
a. Cardiogenic shock or acute severe HF (128) (Level of Evidence: B);
b. Intermediate- or high-risk findings on predischarge noninvasive ischemia testing (141,142) (Level of Evidence: C); or
c. Myocardial ischemia that is spontaneous or provoked by minimal exertion during hospitalization. (Level of Evidence:C)
CLASS IIa
1. Delayed PCI is reasonable in patients with STEMI and evidence of failed reperfusion or reocclusion after fibrinolytic therapy. PCI can be performed as soon as logistically feasible at the receiving hospital (130,130a–130c) (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Delayed PCI of a significant stenosis in a patent infarct artery is reasonable in stable§ patients with STEMI after fibrinolytic therapy. PCI can be performed as soon as logistically feasible at the receiving hospital, and ideally within 24 hours, but should not be performed within the first 2 to 3 hours after administration of fibrinolytic therapy (133–138). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIb
1. Delayed PCI of a significant stenosis in a patent infarct artery greater than 24 hours after STEMI may be considered as part of an invasive strategy in stable§ patients (55,141–148). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS III: NO BENEFIT
1. Delayed PCI of a totally occluded infarct artery greater than 24 hours after STEMI should not be performed in asymptomatic patients with 1- or 2-vessel disease if they are hemodynamically and electrically stable and do not have evidence of severe ischemia (55,146). (Level of Evidence: B)

出院前非梗死动脉的PCI治疗

CLASS I
1. PCI is indicated in a noninfarct artery at a time separate from primary PCI in patients who have spontaneous symptoms of myocardial ischemia. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. PCI is reasonable in a noninfarct artery at a time separate from primary PCI in patients with intermediate- or high-risk findings on noninvasive testing (58,141,142). (Level of Evidence: B)

支持纤维蛋白溶解治疗后延迟PCI治疗的辅助抗血栓治疗

支持纤维蛋白溶解治疗后PCI的抗血小板治疗

CLASS I
1. After PCI, aspirin should be continued indefinitely (76,77,80,82,121,122). (Level of Evidence: A)
2. Clopidogrel should be provided as follows:
a. A 300-mg loading dose should be given before or at the time of PCI to patients who did not receive a previous loading dose and who are undergoing PCI within 24 hours of receiving fibrinolytic therapy (Level of Evidence: C);
b. A 600-mg loading dose should be given before or at the time of PCI to patients who did not receive a previous loading dose and who are undergoing PCI more than 24 hours after receiving fibrinolytic therapy (Level of Evidence: C); and
c. A dose of 75 mg daily should be given after PCI (83,85, 121,122). (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. After PCI, it is reasonable to use 81 mg of aspirin per day in preference to higher maintenance doses (76,82,86,87). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Prasugrel, in a 60-mg loading dose, is reasonable once the coronary anatomy is known in patients who did not receive a previous loading dose of clopidogrel at the time of administration of a fibrinolytic agent, but prasugrel should not be given sooner than 24 hours after administration of a fibrin-specific agent or 48 hours after administration of a non–fibrin-specific agent (83,85). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Prasugrel, in a 10-mg daily maintenance dose, is reasonable after PCI (83,85). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Prasugrel should not be administered to patients with a history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (83). (Level of Evidence: B)

支持纤维蛋白溶解治疗后PCI治疗的抗凝治疗

CLASS I
1. For patients with STEMI undergoing PCI after receiving fibrinolytic therapy with intravenous UFH, additional boluses of intravenous UFH should be administered as needed to support the procedure, taking into account whether GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists have been administered. (Level of Evidence: C)
2. For patients with STEMI undergoing PCI after receiving fibrinolytic therapy with enoxaparin, if the last subcutaneous dose was administered within the prior 8 hours, no additional enoxaparin should be given; if the last subcutaneous dose was administered between 8 and 12 hours earlier, enoxaparin 0.3 mg/kg IV should be given (127,149). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Fondaparinux should not be used as the sole anticoagulant to support PCI. An additional anticoagulant with anti-IIa activity should be administered because of the risk of catheter thrombosis (110). (Level of Evidence: C)

冠状动脉旁路移植术:推荐规范

STEMI患者的CABG

CLASS I
1. Urgent CABG is indicated in patients with STEMI and coronary anatomy not amenable to PCI who have ongoing or recurrent ischemia, cardiogenic shock, severe HF, or other high-risk features (150–152). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. CABG is recommended in patients with STEMI at time of operative repair of mechanical defects (153–157). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. The use of mechanical circulatory support is reasonable in patients with STEMI who are hemodynamically unstable and require urgent CABG. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIb
1. Emergency CABG within 6 hours of symptom onset may be considered in patients with STEMI who do not have cardiogenic shock and are not candidates for PCI or fibrinolytic therapy.(Level of Evidence: C)

涉及使用抗血小板治疗的STEMI患者的紧急CABG时机

CLASS I
1. Aspirin should not be withheld before urgent CABG (158).(Level of Evidence: C)
2. Clopidogrel or ticagrelor should be discontinued at least 24 hours before urgent on-pump CABG, if possible (159–163). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Short-acting intravenous GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists (eptifibatide, tirofiban) should be discontinued at least 2 to 4 hours before urgent CABG (164,165). (Level of Evidence: B)
4. Abciximab should be discontinued at least 12 hours before urgent CABG (137). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIb
1. Urgent off-pump CABG within 24 hours of clopidogrel or ticagrelor administration might be considered, especially if the benefits of prompt revascularization outweigh the risks of bleeding(160,166–168). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Urgent CABG within 5 days of clopidogrel or ticagrelor administration or within 7 days of prasugrel administration might be considered, especially if the benefits of prompt revascularization outweigh the risks of bleeding. (Level of Evidence: C)

常规疗法:推荐规范

β受体阻滞剂

CLASS I
1. Oral beta blockers should be initiated in the first 24 hours in patients with STEMI who do not have any of the following: signs of HF, evidence of a low-output state, increased risk for cardiogenic shock,_ or other contraindications to use of oral beta blockers (PR interval more than 0.24 seconds, second- or third-degree heart block, active asthma, or reactive airways disease) (169–171). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Beta blockers should be continued during and after hospitalization for all patients with STEMI and with no contraindications to their use (172,173). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. Patients with initial contraindications to the use of beta blockers in the first 24 hours after STEMI should be reevaluated to determine their subsequent eligibility. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. It is reasonable to administer intravenous beta blockers at the time of presentation to patients with STEMI and no contrain- dications to their use who are hypertensive or have ongoing ischemia (169–171). (Level of Evidence: B)

肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮系统抑制剂

CLASS I
1. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor should be administered within the first 24 hours to all patients with STEMI with anterior location, HF, or ejection fraction less than or equal to 0.40, unless contraindicated (174–177). (Level of Evidence: A)
2. An angiotensin receptor blocker should be given to patients with STEMI who have indications for but are intolerant of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (178,179). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. An aldosterone antagonist should be given to patients with STEMI and no contraindications who are already receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta blocker and who have an ejection fraction less than or equal to 0.40 and either symptomatic HF or diabetes mellitus (180). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are reasonable for all patients with STEMI and no contraindications to their use (181–183). (Level of Evidence: A)

血脂管理

CLASS I
1. High-intensity statin therapy should be initiated or continued in all patients with STEMI and no contraindications to its use (184,188,189). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. It is reasonable to obtain a fasting lipid profile in patients with STEMI, preferably within 24 hours of presentation. (Level of Evidence: C)

STEMI患者并发症:推荐规范

心原性休克的治疗

CLASS I
1. Emergency revascularization with either PCI or CABG is recommended in suitable patients with cardiogenic shock due to pump failure after STEMI irrespective of the time delay from MI onset (54,190,191). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. In the absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be administered to patients with STEMI and cardiogenic shock who are unsuitable candidates for either PCI or CABG (16,192,193). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. The use of intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation can be useful for patients with cardiogenic shock after STEMI who do not quickly stabilize with pharmacological therapy (194–197,197a). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Alternative left ventricular (LV) assist devices for circulatory support may be considered in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. (Level of Evidence: C)

出院前植入除颤仪治疗

CLASS I
1. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is indicated before discharge in patients who develop sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation more than 48 hours after STEMI, provided the arrhythmia is not due to transient or reversible ischemia, reinfarction, or metabolic abnormalities (198–200). (Level of Evidence: B)

STEMI步测

CLASS I
1. Temporary pacing is indicated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmias unresponsive to medical treatment. (Level of Evidence: C)

STEMI患者心包炎的治疗

CLASS I
1. Aspirin is recommended for treatment of pericarditis after STEMI (201). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. Administration of acetaminophen, colchicine, or narcotic analgesics may be reasonable if aspirin, even in higher doses, is not effective. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS III: HARM
1. Glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are potentially harmful for treatment of pericarditis after STEMI (202,203). (Level of Evidence: B)

抗凝治疗

CLASS I
1. Anticoagulant therapy with a vitamin K antagonist should be provided to patients with STEMI and atrial fibrillation with CHADS2# score greater than or equal to 2, mechanical heart valves, venous thromboembolism, or hypercoagulable disorder. (Level of Evidence: C)
2. The duration of triple-antithrombotic therapy with a vitamin K antagonist, aspirin, and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor should be minimized to the extent possible to limit the risk of bleeding.**(Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. Anticoagulant therapy with a vitamin K antagonist is reasonable for patients with STEMI and asymptomatic LV mural thrombi. (Level of Evidence: C)
CLASS IIa
1. Anticoagulant therapy may be considered for patients with STEMI and anterior apical akinesis or dyskinesis. (Level of Evidence: C)
2. Targeting vitamin K antagonist therapy to a lower international normalized ratio (e.g., 2.0 to 2.5) might be considered in patients with STEMI who are receiving DAPT. (Level of Evidence:C)

STEMI患者风险评估:推荐规范

出院前对于局部缺血的非侵入性检验

CLASS I
1. Noninvasive testing for ischemia should be performed before discharge to assess the presence and extent of inducible ischemia in patients with STEMI who have not had coronary angiography and do not have high-risk clinical features for which coronary angiography would be warranted (209–211). (Level of Evidence: B)
CLASS IIa
1. Noninvasive testing for ischemia might be considered before discharge to evaluate the functional significance of a noninfarct artery stenosis previously identified at angiography.(Level of Evidence: C)
2. Noninvasive testing for ischemia might be considered before discharge to guide the postdischarge exercise prescription.(Level of Evidence: C)

左室功能评估

CLASS I
1. LV ejection fraction should be measured in all patients with STEMI. (Level of Evidence: C)

心源性猝死的风险评估

CLASS I
1. Patients with an initially reduced LV ejection fraction who are possible candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy should undergo reevaluation of LV ejection fraction 40 or more days after discharge (212–215). (Level of Evidence: B)

出院后的护理计划:推荐规范

CLASS I
1. Posthospital systems of care designed to prevent hospital readmissions should be used to facilitate the transition to effective, coordinated outpatient care for all patients with STEMI (216–220). (Level of Evidence: B)
2. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs are recommended for patients with STEMI (221–224). (Level of Evidence: B)
3. A clear, detailed, and evidence-based plan of care that promotes medication adherence, timely follow-up with the healthcare team, appropriate dietary and physical activities, and compliance with interventions for secondary prevention should be provided to patients with STEMI. (Level of Evidence: C)
4. Encouragement and advice to stop smoking and to avoid secondhand smoke should be provided to patients with STEMI (225–228). (Level of Evidence: A)79,185–187